Civilrights, which include the right to vote, right to equality, freedom from involuntary servitude, and freedom of speech, press, assembly,is an enforceable right. Only when it is trampled upon that a person may seek redress. Civil rights law protects and preserves the liberties enjoyed by all citizens in the United States. Civil rights law also protects individuals from government conduct, which are arbitrary and which deprive individuals of their lives or property without due process of law.
The Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution is the primary source of civil rights law. The most important expansions of civil rights inthe United States are embodied in the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery throughout the nation, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which constitutionalizes due process of law and equalprotection of the law. The decades that followed the enactment of theThirteenth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment saw the creation of numerous civil rights statues, most of which are still in place in the United States.
Congress passed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination in public establishments connected to interstate commerce or are supported by the state. The Act defined public establishments to include places of public accommodations, restaurants, gas stations, bars, and places of entertainment. Subsequent legislation prohibited discrimination in public schools and colleges, and in federally funded problems. The Act further expanded to prohibiting discrimination in the workplace.
The Supreme Court's decisions in civil rights cases have resoundingeffects as to how civil rights are recognized throughout the nation.Supreme Court decisions also has a huge influence on how Congressenact civil rights laws and how states protect these rights.
One of main issues arising from civil rights violations is discriminationin workplace, especially with regards to gender, are common. Women,increasingly members of the LGBT community, are susceptible to sexualharassment and suffers undue disadvantage in career promotionsbecause of gender.
Another common issue is the improper conduct by law enforcement resulting toexcessive force or brutality, illegal searches and seizures, falsearrests, and unjustified police shootings. Power play often figures in lawsuits arising from police brutality, as the police or the federal government would typically argue that their act was on behalfof their duty to maintain peace and order. These lawsuits are also often emotional as surviving members of the victim's family try to seek justice for individuals killed by the police. Most often, these lawsuits are also politically charged especially in cases where race or ethnicity play a role in the police conduct.
In addition, another main issue arising from civil rights violation is malicious prosecution. As new technology are developed to probe evidence, many individuals across the nation are filing lawsuits seeking redress of their wrongful conviction. These cases involve large settlements and jury awards and would need skillful litigating tactics of a civil rights attorney. Another common abuse to civilrights is prison brutality. In recent years, inmates have gained stronger voices in telling courts of inhumane and cruel practices incorrectional facilities. Inmates, however, cannot keep a steady voice without a civil rights attorney who is ready to fight against the government.